mpm.html.en 13.3 KB
Newer Older
powelld's avatar
powelld committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><head>
<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
<!--
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
              This file is generated from xml source: DO NOT EDIT
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
      -->
<title>Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs) - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</title>
<link href="./style/css/manual.css" rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="Main stylesheet" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-loose-100pc.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="No Sidebar - Default font size" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="./style/css/prettify.css" />
<script src="./style/scripts/prettify.min.js" type="text/javascript">
</script>

<link href="./images/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" /></head>
<body id="manual-page"><div id="page-header">
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p>
<p class="apache">Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</p>
<img alt="" src="./images/feather.png" /></div>
<div class="up"><a href="./"><img title="&lt;-" alt="&lt;-" src="./images/left.gif" /></a></div>
<div id="path">
<a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/">HTTP Server</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/">Documentation</a> &gt; <a href="./">Version 2.4</a></div><div id="page-content"><div id="preamble"><h1>Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs)</h1>
<div class="toplang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./de/mpm.html" hreflang="de" rel="alternate" title="Deutsch">&nbsp;de&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./en/mpm.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./es/mpm.html" hreflang="es" rel="alternate" title="Espaol">&nbsp;es&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/mpm.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/mpm.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/mpm.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/mpm.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Trke">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./zh-cn/mpm.html" hreflang="zh-cn" rel="alternate" title="Simplified Chinese">&nbsp;zh-cn&nbsp;</a></p>
</div>

<p>This document describes what a Multi-Processing Module is and
how they are used by the Apache HTTP Server.</p>
</div>
<div id="quickview"><a href="https://www.apache.org/foundation/contributing.html" class="badge"><img src="https://www.apache.org/images/SupportApache-small.png" alt="Support Apache!" /></a><ul id="toc"><li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#defaults">MPM Defaults</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#static">Building an MPM as a static module</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#dynamic">Building an MPM as a DSO module</a></li>
</ul><h3>See also</h3><ul class="seealso"><li><a href="#comments_section">Comments</a></li></ul></div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="introduction" id="introduction">Introduction</a></h2>

    <p>The Apache HTTP Server is designed to be a powerful and
    flexible web server that can work on a very wide variety of
    platforms in a range of different environments. Different
    platforms and different environments often require different
    features, or may have different ways of implementing the same
    feature most efficiently. Apache httpd has always accommodated a wide
    variety of environments through its modular design. This design
    allows the webmaster to choose which features will be included
    in the server by selecting which modules to load either at
    compile-time or at run-time.</p>

    <p>Apache HTTP Server 2.0 extends this modular design to the most basic
    functions of a web server. The server ships with a selection of
    Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs) which are responsible for
    binding to network ports on the machine, accepting requests,
    and dispatching children to handle the requests.</p>

    <p>Extending the modular design to this level of the server
    allows two important benefits:</p>

    <ul>
      <li>Apache httpd can more cleanly and efficiently support a wide
      variety of operating systems. In particular, the Windows
      version of the server is now much more efficient, since
      <code class="module"><a href="./mod/mpm_winnt.html">mpm_winnt</a></code> can use native
      networking features in place of the POSIX layer used in
      Apache httpd 1.3. This benefit also extends to other operating
      systems that implement specialized MPMs.</li>

      <li>The server can be better customized for the needs of the
      particular site. For example, sites that need a great deal of
      scalability can choose to use a threaded MPM like
      <code class="module"><a href="./mod/worker.html">worker</a></code> or <code class="module"><a href="./mod/event.html">event</a></code>, while sites requiring
      stability or compatibility with older software can use a
      <code class="module"><a href="./mod/prefork.html">prefork</a></code>.</li>
    </ul>

    <p>At the user level, MPMs appear much like other Apache httpd
    modules. The main difference is that one and only one MPM must
    be loaded into the server at any time. The list of available
    MPMs appears on the <a href="mod/">module index page</a>.</p>

</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="defaults" id="defaults">MPM Defaults</a></h2>

<p>The following table lists the default MPMs for various operating
systems.  This will be the MPM selected if you do not make another
choice at compile-time.</p>

<table class="bordered"><tr><td>Netware</td><td><code class="module"><a href="./mod/mpm_netware.html">mpm_netware</a></code></td></tr>
<tr class="odd"><td>OS/2</td><td><code class="module"><a href="./mod/mpmt_os2.html">mpmt_os2</a></code></td></tr>
<tr><td>Unix</td><td><code class="module"><a href="./mod/prefork.html">prefork</a></code>, <code class="module"><a href="./mod/worker.html">worker</a></code>, or
    <code class="module"><a href="./mod/event.html">event</a></code>, depending on platform capabilities</td></tr>
<tr class="odd"><td>Windows</td><td><code class="module"><a href="./mod/mpm_winnt.html">mpm_winnt</a></code></td></tr>
</table>

<div class="note"><p>Here, 'Unix' is used to mean Unix-like operating systems, such as
Linux, BSD, Solaris, Mac OS X, etc.</p></div>

<p>In the case of Unix, the decision as to which MPM is installed is
based on two questions:</p>
<p>1. Does the system support threads?</p>
<p>2. Does the system support thread-safe polling (Specifically, the
kqueue and epoll functions)?</p>

<p>If the answer to both questions is 'yes', the default MPM is
<code class="module"><a href="./mod/event.html">event</a></code>.</p>

<p>If The answer to #1 is 'yes', but the answer to #2 is 'no', the
default will be <code class="module"><a href="./mod/worker.html">worker</a></code>.</p>

<p>If the answer to both questions is 'no', then the default MPM will be
<code class="module"><a href="./mod/prefork.html">prefork</a></code>.</p>

<p>In practical terms, this means that the default will almost always be
<code class="module"><a href="./mod/event.html">event</a></code>, as all modern operating systems support these
two features.</p>

</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="static" id="static">Building an MPM as a static module</a></h2>

    <p>MPMs can be built as static modules on all platforms.  A single MPM
    is chosen at build time and linked into the server.  The server must
    be rebuilt in order to change the MPM.</p>

    <p>To override the default MPM choice, use the
    <code>--with-mpm=<em>NAME</em></code> option of the
    <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code> script. <em>NAME</em> is the name of the
    desired MPM.</p>

    <p>Once the server has been compiled, it is possible to determine which MPM
    was chosen by using <code>./httpd -l</code>. This command will list every
    module that is compiled into the server, including the MPM.</p>

</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="dynamic" id="dynamic">Building an MPM as a DSO module</a></h2>

    <p>On Unix and similar platforms, MPMs can be built as DSO modules and
    dynamically loaded into the server in the same manner as other DSO
    modules.  Building MPMs as DSO modules allows the MPM to be changed by
    updating the <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_so.html#loadmodule">LoadModule</a></code> directive
    for the MPM instead of by rebuilding the server.</p>

    <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">LoadModule mpm_prefork_module modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so</pre>


    <p>Attempting to <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_so.html#loadmodule">LoadModule</a></code>
    more than one MPM will result in a startup failure with the
    following error.</p>

    <div class="example"><p><code>AH00534: httpd: Configuration error: More than one MPM
    loaded.</code></p></div>

    <p>This feature is enabled using the
    <code>--enable-mpms-shared</code> option of the <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code>
    script.
    With argument <code><em>all</em></code>, all possible MPMs for the platform
    will be installed.  Alternately, a list of MPMs can be specified as the
    argument.</p>

    <p>The default MPM, either selected automatically or specified with the
    <code>--with-mpm</code> option of the <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code>
    script, will be loaded in the generated server configuration file.  Edit the
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_so.html#loadmodule">LoadModule</a></code> directive to select a
    different MPM.</p>

</div></div>
<div class="bottomlang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./de/mpm.html" hreflang="de" rel="alternate" title="Deutsch">&nbsp;de&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./en/mpm.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./es/mpm.html" hreflang="es" rel="alternate" title="Espaol">&nbsp;es&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/mpm.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/mpm.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/mpm.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/mpm.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Trke">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./zh-cn/mpm.html" hreflang="zh-cn" rel="alternate" title="Simplified Chinese">&nbsp;zh-cn&nbsp;</a></p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img src="./images/up.gif" alt="top" /></a></div><div class="section"><h2><a id="comments_section" name="comments_section">Comments</a></h2><div class="warning"><strong>Notice:</strong><br />This is not a Q&amp;A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/lists.html">mailing lists</a>.</div>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
var comments_shortname = 'httpd';
var comments_identifier = 'http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mpm.html';
(function(w, d) {
    if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "httpd.apache.org") {
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
        var s = d.createElement('script');
        s.type = 'text/javascript';
        s.async = true;
        s.src = 'https://comments.apache.org/show_comments.lua?site=' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
        (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
    }
    else { 
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread">Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.<\/div>');
    }
})(window, document);
//--><!]]></script></div><div id="footer">
<p class="apache">Copyright 2017 The Apache Software Foundation.<br />Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.</p>
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p></div><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
if (typeof(prettyPrint) !== 'undefined') {
    prettyPrint();
}
//--><!]]></script>
</body></html>