bind.html.en 13.8 KB
Newer Older
powelld's avatar
powelld committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><head>
<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
<!--
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
              This file is generated from xml source: DO NOT EDIT
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
      -->
<title>Binding to Addresses and Ports - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</title>
<link href="./style/css/manual.css" rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="Main stylesheet" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-loose-100pc.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="No Sidebar - Default font size" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="./style/css/prettify.css" />
<script src="./style/scripts/prettify.min.js" type="text/javascript">
</script>

<link href="./images/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" /></head>
<body id="manual-page"><div id="page-header">
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p>
<p class="apache">Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</p>
<img alt="" src="./images/feather.png" /></div>
<div class="up"><a href="./"><img title="&lt;-" alt="&lt;-" src="./images/left.gif" /></a></div>
<div id="path">
<a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/">HTTP Server</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/">Documentation</a> &gt; <a href="./">Version 2.4</a></div><div id="page-content"><div id="preamble"><h1>Binding to Addresses and Ports</h1>
<div class="toplang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./de/bind.html" hreflang="de" rel="alternate" title="Deutsch">&nbsp;de&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./en/bind.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/bind.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/bind.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/bind.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/bind.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Trke">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a></p>
</div>

    <p>Configuring Apache HTTP Server to listen on specific addresses and ports.</p>
  </div>
<div id="quickview"><a href="https://www.apache.org/foundation/contributing.html" class="badge"><img src="https://www.apache.org/images/SupportApache-small.png" alt="Support Apache!" /></a><ul id="toc"><li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#overview">Overview</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#ipv6">Special IPv6 Considerations</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#protocol">Specifying the protocol with Listen</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#virtualhost">How This Works With Virtual Hosts</a></li>
</ul><h3>See also</h3><ul class="seealso"><li><a href="vhosts/">Virtual Hosts</a></li><li><a href="dns-caveats.html">DNS Issues</a></li><li><a href="#comments_section">Comments</a></li></ul></div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="overview" id="overview">Overview</a></h2>
    

    <table class="related"><tr><th>Related Modules</th><th>Related Directives</th></tr><tr><td><ul><li><code class="module"><a href="./mod/core.html">core</a></code></li><li><code class="module"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html">mpm_common</a></code></li></ul></td><td><ul><li><code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code></li><li><code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code></li></ul></td></tr></table>


    <p>When httpd starts, it binds to some port and address on
    the local machine and waits for incoming requests. By default,
    it listens to all addresses on the machine. However, it may need to
    be told to listen on specific ports, or only on selected
    addresses, or a combination of both. This is often combined with the
    <a href="vhosts/">Virtual Host</a> feature, which determines how
    <code>httpd</code> responds to different IP addresses, hostnames and
    ports.</p>

    <p>The <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code>
    directive tells the server to accept
    incoming requests only on the specified port(s) or
    address-and-port combinations. If only a port number is
    specified in the <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code>
    directive, the server listens to the given port on all interfaces.
    If an IP address is given as well as a port, the server will listen
    on the given port and interface. Multiple <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code> directives may be used to
    specify a number of addresses and ports to listen on. The
    server will respond to requests from any of the listed
    addresses and ports.</p>

    <p>For example, to make the server accept connections on both
    port 80 and port 8000, on all interfaces, use:</p>

    <div class="example"><pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Listen 80
Listen 8000</pre>
</div>

    <p>To make the server accept connections on port 80 for one interface,
       and port 8000 on another, use</p>

    <div class="example"><pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Listen 192.0.2.1:80
Listen 192.0.2.5:8000</pre>
</div>

    <p>IPv6 addresses must be enclosed in square brackets, as in the
    following example:</p>

    <div class="example"><pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Listen [2001:db8::a00:20ff:fea7:ccea]:80</pre>
</div>

    <div class="warning"><p>Overlapping <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code> directives will result in a
    fatal error which will prevent the server from starting up.</p>

    <div class="example"><p><code>
      (48)Address already in use: make_sock: could not bind to address [::]:80
    </code></p></div>

    <p>See <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/CouldNotBindToAddress">the
    discussion in the wiki</a> for further troubleshooting tips.</p>

</div>

  </div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="ipv6" id="ipv6">Special IPv6 Considerations</a></h2>
    

    <p>A growing number of platforms implement IPv6, and
    <a class="glossarylink" href="./glossary.html#apr" title="see glossary">APR</a> supports IPv6 on most of these platforms,
    allowing httpd to allocate IPv6 sockets, and to handle requests sent
    over IPv6.</p>

    <p>One complicating factor for httpd administrators is whether or
    not an IPv6 socket can handle both IPv4 connections and IPv6
    connections. Handling IPv4 connections with an IPv6 socket uses
    IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, which are allowed by default on most
    platforms, but are disallowed by default on FreeBSD, NetBSD, and
    OpenBSD, in order to match the system-wide policy on those
    platforms. On systems where it is disallowed by default, a
    special <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code> parameter can change this behavior
    for httpd.</p>

    <p>On the other hand, on some platforms, such as Linux and Tru64, the
    <strong>only</strong> way to handle both IPv6 and IPv4 is to use
    mapped addresses. If you want <code>httpd</code> to handle IPv4 and IPv6 connections
    with a minimum of sockets, which requires using IPv4-mapped IPv6
    addresses, specify the <code>--enable-v4-mapped</code> <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code> option.</p>

    <p><code>--enable-v4-mapped</code> is the default on all platforms except
    FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD, so this is probably how your httpd was
    built.</p>

    <p>If you want httpd to handle IPv4 connections only, regardless of
    what your platform and APR will support, specify an IPv4 address on all
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code> directives, as in the
    following examples:</p>

    <div class="example"><pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Listen 0.0.0.0:80
Listen 192.0.2.1:80</pre>
</div>

    <p>If your platform supports it and you want httpd to handle IPv4 and
    IPv6 connections on separate sockets (i.e., to disable IPv4-mapped
    addresses), specify the <code>--disable-v4-mapped</code> <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code> option. <code>--disable-v4-mapped</code> is the
    default on FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD.</p>
  </div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="protocol" id="protocol">Specifying the protocol with Listen</a></h2>
    
    <p>The optional second <var>protocol</var> argument of
       <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code>
       is not required for most
       configurations. If not specified, <code>https</code> is the default for
       port 443 and <code>http</code> the default for all other ports.  The
       protocol is used to determine which module should handle a request, and
       to apply protocol specific optimizations with the
       <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#acceptfilter">AcceptFilter</a></code> directive.</p>

    <p>You only need to set the protocol if you are running on non-standard
       ports.  For example, running an <code>https</code> site on port 8443:</p>

    <div class="example"><pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Listen 192.170.2.1:8443 https</pre>
</div>
  </div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="virtualhost" id="virtualhost">How This Works With Virtual Hosts</a></h2>
    

    <p> The <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mpm_common.html#listen">Listen</a></code> directive does not implement
    Virtual Hosts - it only tells the
    main server what addresses and ports to listen on. If no
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code>
    directives are used, the server will behave
    in the same way for all accepted requests. However,
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code>
    can be used to specify a different behavior
    for one or more of the addresses or ports. To implement a
    VirtualHost, the server must first be told to listen to the
    address and port to be used. Then a
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code> section
    should be created for the specified address and port to set the
    behavior of this virtual host. Note that if the
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code>
    is set for an address and port that the
    server is not listening to, it cannot be accessed.</p>
  </div></div>
<div class="bottomlang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./de/bind.html" hreflang="de" rel="alternate" title="Deutsch">&nbsp;de&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./en/bind.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/bind.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/bind.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/bind.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/bind.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Trke">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a></p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img src="./images/up.gif" alt="top" /></a></div><div class="section"><h2><a id="comments_section" name="comments_section">Comments</a></h2><div class="warning"><strong>Notice:</strong><br />This is not a Q&amp;A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/lists.html">mailing lists</a>.</div>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
var comments_shortname = 'httpd';
var comments_identifier = 'http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/bind.html';
(function(w, d) {
    if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "httpd.apache.org") {
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
        var s = d.createElement('script');
        s.type = 'text/javascript';
        s.async = true;
        s.src = 'https://comments.apache.org/show_comments.lua?site=' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
        (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
    }
    else { 
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread">Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.<\/div>');
    }
})(window, document);
//--><!]]></script></div><div id="footer">
<p class="apache">Copyright 2017 The Apache Software Foundation.<br />Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.</p>
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p></div><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
if (typeof(prettyPrint) !== 'undefined') {
    prettyPrint();
}
//--><!]]></script>
</body></html>