pod2man.pl 28.5 KB
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: #!/usr/bin/perl-5.005
    eval 'exec /usr/bin/perl -S $0 ${1+"$@"}'
	if $running_under_some_shell;

$DEF_PM_SECTION = '3pm' || '3';

=head1 NAME

pod2man - translate embedded Perl pod directives into man pages

=head1 SYNOPSIS

B<pod2man>
[ B<--section=>I<manext> ]
[ B<--release=>I<relpatch> ]
[ B<--center=>I<string> ]
[ B<--date=>I<string> ]
[ B<--fixed=>I<font> ]
[ B<--official> ]
[ B<--lax> ]
I<inputfile>

=head1 DESCRIPTION

B<pod2man> converts its input file containing embedded pod directives (see
L<perlpod>) into nroff source suitable for viewing with nroff(1) or
troff(1) using the man(7) macro set.

Besides the obvious pod conversions, B<pod2man> also takes care of
func(), func(n), and simple variable references like $foo or @bar so
you don't have to use code escapes for them; complex expressions like
C<$fred{'stuff'}> will still need to be escaped, though.  Other nagging
little roffish things that it catches include translating the minus in
something like foo-bar, making a long dash--like this--into a real em
dash, fixing up "paired quotes", putting a little space after the
parens in something like func(), making C++ and PI look right, making
double underbars have a little tiny space between them, making ALLCAPS
a teeny bit smaller in troff(1), and escaping backslashes so you don't
have to.

=head1 OPTIONS

=over 8

=item center

Set the centered header to a specific string.  The default is
"User Contributed Perl Documentation", unless the C<--official> flag is
given, in which case the default is "Perl Programmers Reference Guide".

=item date

Set the left-hand footer string to this value.  By default,
the modification date of the input file will be used.

=item fixed

The fixed font to use for code refs.  Defaults to CW.

=item official

Set the default header to indicate that this page is of
the standard release in case C<--center> is not given.

=item release

Set the centered footer.  By default, this is the current
perl release.

=item section

Set the section for the C<.TH> macro.  The standard conventions on
sections are to use 1 for user commands,  2 for system calls, 3 for
functions, 4 for devices, 5 for file formats, 6 for games, 7 for
miscellaneous information, and 8 for administrator commands.  This works
best if you put your Perl man pages in a separate tree, like
F</usr/local/perl/man/>.  By default, section 1 will be used
unless the file ends in F<.pm> in which case section 3 will be selected.

=item lax

Don't complain when required sections aren't present.

=back

=head1 Anatomy of a Proper Man Page

For those not sure of the proper layout of a man page, here's
an example of the skeleton of a proper man page.  Head of the
major headers should be setout as a C<=head1> directive, and
are historically written in the rather startling ALL UPPER CASE
format, although this is not mandatory.
Minor headers may be included using C<=head2>, and are
typically in mixed case.

=over 10

=item NAME

Mandatory section; should be a comma-separated list of programs or
functions documented by this podpage, such as:

    foo, bar - programs to do something

=item SYNOPSIS

A short usage summary for programs and functions, which
may someday be deemed mandatory.

=item DESCRIPTION

Long drawn out discussion of the program.  It's a good idea to break this
up into subsections using the C<=head2> directives, like

    =head2 A Sample Subection

    =head2 Yet Another Sample Subection

=item OPTIONS

Some people make this separate from the description.

=item RETURN VALUE

What the program or function returns if successful.

=item ERRORS

Exceptions, return codes, exit stati, and errno settings.

=item EXAMPLES

Give some example uses of the program.

=item ENVIRONMENT

Envariables this program might care about.

=item FILES

All files used by the program.  You should probably use the FE<lt>E<gt>
for these.

=item SEE ALSO

Other man pages to check out, like man(1), man(7), makewhatis(8), or catman(8).

=item NOTES

Miscellaneous commentary.

=item CAVEATS

Things to take special care with; sometimes called WARNINGS.

=item DIAGNOSTICS

All possible messages the program can print out--and
what they mean.

=item BUGS

Things that are broken or just don't work quite right.

=item RESTRICTIONS

Bugs you don't plan to fix :-)

=item AUTHOR

Who wrote it (or AUTHORS if multiple).

=item HISTORY

Programs derived from other sources sometimes have this, or
you might keep a modification log here.

=back

=head1 EXAMPLES

    pod2man program > program.1
    pod2man some_module.pm > /usr/perl/man/man3/some_module.3
    pod2man --section=7 note.pod > note.7

=head1 DIAGNOSTICS

The following diagnostics are generated by B<pod2man>.  Items
marked "(W)" are non-fatal, whereas the "(F)" errors will cause
B<pod2man> to immediately exit with a non-zero status.

=over 4

=item bad option in paragraph %d of %s: ``%s'' should be [%s]<%s>

(W) If you start include an option, you should set it off
as bold, italic, or code.

=item can't open %s: %s

(F) The input file wasn't available for the given reason.

=item Improper man page - no dash in NAME header in paragraph %d of %s

(W) The NAME header did not have an isolated dash in it.  This is
considered important.

=item Invalid man page - no NAME line in %s

(F) You did not include a NAME header, which is essential.

=item roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not `%s'  (F)

(F) The font specified with the C<--fixed> option was not
a one- or two-digit roff font.

=item %s is missing required section: %s

(W) Required sections include NAME, DESCRIPTION, and if you're
using a section starting with a 3, also a SYNOPSIS.  Actually,
not having a NAME is a fatal.

=item Unknown escape: %s in %s

(W) An unknown HTML entity (probably for an 8-bit character) was given via
a C<EE<lt>E<gt>> directive.  Besides amp, lt, gt, and quot, recognized
entities are Aacute, aacute, Acirc, acirc, AElig, aelig, Agrave, agrave,
Aring, aring, Atilde, atilde, Auml, auml, Ccedil, ccedil, Eacute, eacute,
Ecirc, ecirc, Egrave, egrave, ETH, eth, Euml, euml, Iacute, iacute, Icirc,
icirc, Igrave, igrave, Iuml, iuml, Ntilde, ntilde, Oacute, oacute, Ocirc,
ocirc, Ograve, ograve, Oslash, oslash, Otilde, otilde, Ouml, ouml, szlig,
THORN, thorn, Uacute, uacute, Ucirc, ucirc, Ugrave, ugrave, Uuml, uuml,
Yacute, yacute, and yuml.

=item Unmatched =back

(W) You have a C<=back> without a corresponding C<=over>.

=item Unrecognized pod directive: %s

(W) You specified a pod directive that isn't in the known list of
C<=head1>, C<=head2>, C<=item>, C<=over>, C<=back>, or C<=cut>.


=back

=head1 NOTES

If you would like to print out a lot of man page continuously, you
probably want to set the C and D registers to set contiguous page
numbering and even/odd paging, at least on some versions of man(7).
Settting the F register will get you some additional experimental
indexing:

    troff -man -rC1 -rD1 -rF1 perl.1 perldata.1 perlsyn.1 ...

The indexing merely outputs messages via C<.tm> for each
major page, section, subsection, item, and any C<XE<lt>E<gt>>
directives.


=head1 RESTRICTIONS

None at this time.

=head1 BUGS

The =over and =back directives don't really work right.  They
take absolute positions instead of offsets, don't nest well, and
making people count is suboptimal in any event.

=head1 AUTHORS

Original prototype by Larry Wall, but so massively hacked over by
Tom Christiansen such that Larry probably doesn't recognize it anymore.

=cut

$/ = "";
$cutting = 1;
@Indices = ();

# We try first to get the version number from a local binary, in case we're
# running an installed version of Perl to produce documentation from an
# uninstalled newer version's pod files.
if ($^O ne 'plan9' and $^O ne 'dos' and $^O ne 'os2' and $^O ne 'MSWin32') {
  my $perl = (-x './perl' && -f './perl' ) ?
                 './perl' :
                 ((-x '../perl' && -f '../perl') ?
                      '../perl' :
                      '');
  ($version,$patch) = `$perl -e 'print $]'` =~ /^(\d\.\d{3})(\d{2})?/ if $perl;
}
# No luck; we'll just go with the running Perl's version
($version,$patch) = $] =~ /^(.{5})(\d{2})?/ unless $version;
$DEF_RELEASE  = "perl $version";
$DEF_RELEASE .= ", patch $patch" if $patch;


sub makedate {
    my $secs = shift;
    my ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst) = localtime($secs);
    my $mname = (qw{Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec})[$mon];
    $year += 1900;
    return "$mday/$mname/$year";
}

use Getopt::Long;

$DEF_SECTION = 1;
$DEF_CENTER = "User Contributed Perl Documentation";
$STD_CENTER = "Perl Programmers Reference Guide";
$DEF_FIXED = 'CW';
$DEF_LAX = 0;

sub usage {
    warn "$0: @_\n" if @_;
    die <<EOF;
usage: $0 [options] podpage
Options are:
	--section=manext      (default "$DEF_SECTION")
	--release=relpatch    (default "$DEF_RELEASE")
	--center=string       (default "$DEF_CENTER")
	--date=string         (default "$DEF_DATE")
	--fixed=font	      (default "$DEF_FIXED")
	--official	      (default NOT)
	--lax                 (default NOT)
EOF
}

$uok = GetOptions( qw(
	section=s
	release=s
	center=s
	date=s
	fixed=s
	official
	lax
	help));

$DEF_DATE = makedate((stat($ARGV[0]))[9] || time());

usage("Usage error!") unless $uok;
usage() if $opt_help;
usage("Need one and only one podpage argument") unless @ARGV == 1;

$section = $opt_section || ($ARGV[0] =~ /\.pm$/
				? $DEF_PM_SECTION : $DEF_SECTION);
$RP = $opt_release || $DEF_RELEASE;
$center = $opt_center || ($opt_official ? $STD_CENTER : $DEF_CENTER);
$lax = $opt_lax || $DEF_LAX;

$CFont = $opt_fixed || $DEF_FIXED;

if (length($CFont) == 2) {
    $CFont_embed = "\\f($CFont";
}
elsif (length($CFont) == 1) {
    $CFont_embed = "\\f$CFont";
}
else {
    die "roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not `$CFont_embed'";
}

$date = $opt_date || $DEF_DATE;

for (qw{NAME DESCRIPTION}) {
# for (qw{NAME DESCRIPTION AUTHOR}) {
    $wanna_see{$_}++;
}
$wanna_see{SYNOPSIS}++ if $section =~ /^3/;


$name = @ARGV ? $ARGV[0] : "<STDIN>";
$Filename = $name;
if ($section =~ /^1/) {
    require File::Basename;
    $name = uc File::Basename::basename($name);
}
$name =~ s/\.(pod|p[lm])$//i;

# Lose everything up to the first of
#     */lib/*perl*	standard or site_perl module
#     */*perl*/lib	from -D prefix=/opt/perl
#     */*perl*/		random module hierarchy
# which works.
$name =~ s-//+-/-g;
if ($name =~ s-^.*?/lib/[^/]*perl[^/]*/--i
	or $name =~ s-^.*?/[^/]*perl[^/]*/lib/--i
	or $name =~ s-^.*?/[^/]*perl[^/]*/--i) {
    # Lose ^site(_perl)?/.
    $name =~ s-^site(_perl)?/--;
    # Lose ^arch/.	(XXX should we use Config? Just for archname?)
    $name =~ s~^(.*-$^O|$^O-.*)/~~o;
    # Lose ^version/.
    $name =~ s-^\d+\.\d+/--;
}

# Translate Getopt/Long to Getopt::Long, etc.
$name =~ s(/)(::)g;

if ($name ne 'something') {
    FCHECK: {
	open(F, "< $ARGV[0]") || die "can't open $ARGV[0]: $!";
	while (<F>) {
	    next unless /^=\b/;
	    if (/^=head1\s+NAME\s*$/) {  # an /m would forgive mistakes
		$_ = <F>;
		unless (/\s*-+\s+/) {
		    $oops++;
		    warn "$0: Improper man page - no dash in NAME header in paragraph $. of $ARGV[0]\n"
                } else {
		    my @n = split /\s+-+\s+/;
		    if (@n != 2) {
			$oops++;
			warn "$0: Improper man page - malformed NAME header in paragraph $. of $ARGV[0]\n"
		    }
		    else {
			$n[0] =~ s/\n/ /g;
			$n[1] =~ s/\n/ /g;
			%namedesc = @n;
		    }
		}
		last FCHECK;
	    }
	    next if /^=cut\b/;	# DB_File and Net::Ping have =cut before NAME
	    next if /^=pod\b/;  # It is OK to have =pod before NAME
	    next if /^=(for|begin|end)\s+comment\b/;  # It is OK to have =for =begin or =end comment before NAME
	    die "$0: Invalid man page - 1st pod line is not NAME in $ARGV[0]\n" unless $lax;
	}
	die "$0: Invalid man page - no documentation in $ARGV[0]\n" unless $lax;
    }
    close F;
}

print <<"END";
.rn '' }`
''' \$RCSfile\$\$Revision\$\$Date\$
'''
''' \$Log\$
'''
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.if t .Sp
.ne 5
.PP
\\fB\\\\\$1\\fR
.PP
..
.de Sp
.if t .sp .5v
.if n .sp
..
.de Ip
.br
.ie \\\\n(.\$>=3 .ne \\\\\$3
.el .ne 3
.IP "\\\\\$1" \\\\\$2
..
.de Vb
.ft $CFont
.nf
.ne \\\\\$1
..
.de Ve
.ft R

.fi
..
'''
'''
'''     Set up \\*(-- to give an unbreakable dash;
'''     string Tr holds user defined translation string.
'''     Bell System Logo is used as a dummy character.
'''
.tr \\(*W-|\\(bv\\*(Tr
.ie n \\{\\
.ds -- \\(*W-
.ds PI pi
.if (\\n(.H=4u)&(1m=24u) .ds -- \\(*W\\h'-12u'\\(*W\\h'-12u'-\\" diablo 10 pitch
.if (\\n(.H=4u)&(1m=20u) .ds -- \\(*W\\h'-12u'\\(*W\\h'-8u'-\\" diablo 12 pitch
.ds L" ""
.ds R" ""
'''   \\*(M", \\*(S", \\*(N" and \\*(T" are the equivalent of
'''   \\*(L" and \\*(R", except that they are used on ".xx" lines,
'''   such as .IP and .SH, which do another additional levels of
'''   double-quote interpretation
.ds M" """
.ds S" """
.ds N" """""
.ds T" """""
.ds L' '
.ds R' '
.ds M' '
.ds S' '
.ds N' '
.ds T' '
'br\\}
.el\\{\\
.ds -- \\(em\\|
.tr \\*(Tr
.ds L" ``
.ds R" ''
.ds M" ``
.ds S" ''
.ds N" ``
.ds T" ''
.ds L' `
.ds R' '
.ds M' `
.ds S' '
.ds N' `
.ds T' '
.ds PI \\(*p
'br\\}
END

print <<'END';
.\"	If the F register is turned on, we'll generate
.\"	index entries out stderr for the following things:
.\"		TH	Title 
.\"		SH	Header
.\"		Sh	Subsection 
.\"		Ip	Item
.\"		X<>	Xref  (embedded
.\"	Of course, you have to process the output yourself
.\"	in some meaninful fashion.
.if \nF \{
.de IX
.tm Index:\\$1\t\\n%\t"\\$2"
..
.nr % 0
.rr F
.\}
END

print <<"END";
.TH $name $section "$RP" "$date" "$center"
.UC
END

push(@Indices, qq{.IX Title "$name $section"});

while (($name, $desc) = each %namedesc) {
    for ($name, $desc) { s/^\s+//; s/\s+$//; }
    push(@Indices, qq(.IX Name "$name - $desc"\n));
}

print <<'END';
.if n .hy 0
.if n .na
.ds C+ C\v'-.1v'\h'-1p'\s-2+\h'-1p'+\s0\v'.1v'\h'-1p'
.de CQ          \" put $1 in typewriter font
END
print ".ft $CFont\n";
print <<'END';
'if n "\c
'if t \\&\\$1\c
'if n \\&\\$1\c
'if n \&"
\\&\\$2 \\$3 \\$4 \\$5 \\$6 \\$7
'.ft R
..
.\" @(#)ms.acc 1.5 88/02/08 SMI; from UCB 4.2
.	\" AM - accent mark definitions
.bd B 3
.	\" fudge factors for nroff and troff
.if n \{\
.	ds #H 0
.	ds #V .8m
.	ds #F .3m
.	ds #[ \f1
.	ds #] \fP
.\}
.if t \{\
.	ds #H ((1u-(\\\\n(.fu%2u))*.13m)
.	ds #V .6m
.	ds #F 0
.	ds #[ \&
.	ds #] \&
.\}
.	\" simple accents for nroff and troff
.if n \{\
.	ds ' \&
.	ds ` \&
.	ds ^ \&
.	ds , \&
.	ds ~ ~
.	ds ? ?
.	ds ! !
.	ds /
.	ds q
.\}
.if t \{\
.	ds ' \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\'\h"|\\n:u"
.	ds ` \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\`\h'|\\n:u'
.	ds ^ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*10/11-\*(#H)'^\h'|\\n:u'
.	ds , \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10)',\h'|\\n:u'
.	ds ~ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu-\*(#H-.1m)'~\h'|\\n:u'
.	ds ? \s-2c\h'-\w'c'u*7/10'\u\h'\*(#H'\zi\d\s+2\h'\w'c'u*8/10'
.	ds ! \s-2\(or\s+2\h'-\w'\(or'u'\v'-.8m'.\v'.8m'
.	ds / \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H)'\z\(sl\h'|\\n:u'
.	ds q o\h'-\w'o'u*8/10'\s-4\v'.4m'\z\(*i\v'-.4m'\s+4\h'\w'o'u*8/10'
.\}
.	\" troff and (daisy-wheel) nroff accents
.ds : \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10-\*(#H+.1m+\*(#F)'\v'-\*(#V'\z.\h'.2m+\*(#F'.\h'|\\n:u'\v'\*(#V'
.ds 8 \h'\*(#H'\(*b\h'-\*(#H'
.ds v \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*9/10-\*(#H)'\v'-\*(#V'\*(#[\s-4v\s0\v'\*(#V'\h'|\\n:u'\*(#]
.ds _ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*9/10-\*(#H+(\*(#F*2/3))'\v'-.4m'\z\(hy\v'.4m'\h'|\\n:u'
.ds . \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*8/10)'\v'\*(#V*4/10'\z.\v'-\*(#V*4/10'\h'|\\n:u'
.ds 3 \*(#[\v'.2m'\s-2\&3\s0\v'-.2m'\*(#]
.ds o \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu+\w'\(de'u-\*(#H)/2u'\v'-.3n'\*(#[\z\(de\v'.3n'\h'|\\n:u'\*(#]
.ds d- \h'\*(#H'\(pd\h'-\w'~'u'\v'-.25m'\f2\(hy\fP\v'.25m'\h'-\*(#H'
.ds D- D\\k:\h'-\w'D'u'\v'-.11m'\z\(hy\v'.11m'\h'|\\n:u'
.ds th \*(#[\v'.3m'\s+1I\s-1\v'-.3m'\h'-(\w'I'u*2/3)'\s-1o\s+1\*(#]
.ds Th \*(#[\s+2I\s-2\h'-\w'I'u*3/5'\v'-.3m'o\v'.3m'\*(#]
.ds ae a\h'-(\w'a'u*4/10)'e
.ds Ae A\h'-(\w'A'u*4/10)'E
.ds oe o\h'-(\w'o'u*4/10)'e
.ds Oe O\h'-(\w'O'u*4/10)'E
.	\" corrections for vroff
.if v .ds ~ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*9/10-\*(#H)'\s-2\u~\d\s+2\h'|\\n:u'
.if v .ds ^ \\k:\h'-(\\n(.wu*10/11-\*(#H)'\v'-.4m'^\v'.4m'\h'|\\n:u'
.	\" for low resolution devices (crt and lpr)
.if \n(.H>23 .if \n(.V>19 \
\{\
.	ds : e
.	ds 8 ss
.	ds v \h'-1'\o'\(aa\(ga'
.	ds _ \h'-1'^
.	ds . \h'-1'.
.	ds 3 3
.	ds o a
.	ds d- d\h'-1'\(ga
.	ds D- D\h'-1'\(hy
.	ds th \o'bp'
.	ds Th \o'LP'
.	ds ae ae
.	ds Ae AE
.	ds oe oe
.	ds Oe OE
.\}
.rm #[ #] #H #V #F C
END

$indent = 0;

$begun = "";

# Unrolling [^A-Z>]|[A-Z](?!<) gives:    // MRE pp 165.
my $nonest = '(?:[^A-Z>]*(?:[A-Z](?!<)[^A-Z>]*)*)';

while (<>) {
    if ($cutting) {
	next unless /^=/;
	$cutting = 0;
    }
    if ($begun) {
	if (/^=end\s+$begun/) {
            $begun = "";
	}
	elsif ($begun =~ /^(roff|man)$/) {
	    print STDOUT $_;
        }
	next;
    }
    chomp;

    # Translate verbatim paragraph

    if (/^\s/) {
	@lines = split(/\n/);
	for (@lines) {
	    1 while s
		{^( [^\t]* ) \t ( \t* ) }
		{ $1 . ' ' x (8 - (length($1)%8) + 8 * (length($2))) }ex;
	    s/\\/\\e/g;
	    s/\A/\\&/s;
	}
	$lines = @lines;
	makespace() unless $verbatim++;
	print ".Vb $lines\n";
	print join("\n", @lines), "\n";
	print ".Ve\n";
	$needspace = 0;
	next;
    }

    $verbatim = 0;

    if (/^=for\s+(\S+)\s*/s) {
	if ($1 eq "man" or $1 eq "roff") {
	    print STDOUT $',"\n\n";
	} else {
	    # ignore unknown for
	}
	next;
    }
    elsif (/^=begin\s+(\S+)\s*/s) {
	$begun = $1;
	if ($1 eq "man" or $1 eq "roff") {
	    print STDOUT $'."\n\n";
	}
	next;
    }

    # check for things that'll hosed our noremap scheme; affects $_
    init_noremap();

    if (!/^=item/) {

	# trofficate backslashes; must do it before what happens below
	s/\\/noremap('\\e')/ge;

	# protect leading periods and quotes against *roff
	# mistaking them for directives
	s/^(?:[A-Z]<)?[.']/\\&$&/gm;

	# first hide the escapes in case we need to
	# intuit something and get it wrong due to fmting

	1 while s/([A-Z]<$nonest>)/noremap($1)/ge;

	# func() is a reference to a perl function
	s{
	    \b
	    (
		[:\w]+ \(\)
	    )
	} {I<$1>}gx;

	# func(n) is a reference to a perl function or a man page
	s{
	    ([:\w]+)
	    (
		\( [^\051]+ \)
	    )
	} {I<$1>\\|$2}gx;

	# convert simple variable references
	s/(\s+)([\$\@%][\w:]+)(?!\()/${1}C<$2>/g;

	if (m{ (
		    [\-\w]+
		    \(
			[^\051]*?
			[\@\$,]
			[^\051]*?
		    \)
		)
	    }x && $` !~ /([LCI]<[^<>]*|-)$/ && !/^=\w/)
	{
	    warn "$0: bad option in paragraph $. of $ARGV: ``$1'' should be [LCI]<$1>\n";
	    $oops++;
	}

	while (/(-[a-zA-Z])\b/g && $` !~ /[\w\-]$/) {
	    warn "$0: bad option in paragraph $. of $ARGV: ``$1'' should be [CB]<$1>\n";
	    $oops++;
	}

	# put it back so we get the <> processed again;
	clear_noremap(0); # 0 means leave the E's

    } else {
	# trofficate backslashes
	s/\\/noremap('\\e')/ge;

    }

    # need to hide E<> first; they're processed in clear_noremap
    s/(E<[^<>]+>)/noremap($1)/ge;


    $maxnest = 10;
    while ($maxnest-- && /[A-Z]</) {

	# can't do C font here
	s/([BI])<($nonest)>/font($1) . $2 . font('R')/eg;

	# files and filelike refs in italics
	s/F<($nonest)>/I<$1>/g;

	# no break -- usually we want C<> for this
	s/S<($nonest)>/nobreak($1)/eg;

	# LREF: a la HREF L<show this text|man/section>
	s:L<([^|>]+)\|[^>]+>:$1:g;

	# LREF: a manpage(3f)
	s:L<([a-zA-Z][^\s\/]+)(\([^\)]+\))?>:the I<$1>$2 manpage:g;

	# LREF: an =item on another manpage
	s{
	    L<
		([^/]+)
		/
		(
		    [:\w]+
		    (\(\))?
		)
	    >
	} {the C<$2> entry in the I<$1> manpage}gx;

	# LREF: an =item on this manpage
	s{
	   ((?:
	    L<
		/
		(
		    [:\w]+
		    (\(\))?
		)
	    >
	    (,?\s+(and\s+)?)?
	  )+)
	} { internal_lrefs($1) }gex;

	# LREF: a =head2 (head1?), maybe on a manpage, maybe right here
	# the "func" can disambiguate
	s{
	    L<
		(?:
		    ([a-zA-Z]\S+?) /
		)?
		"?(.*?)"?
	    >
	}{
	    do {
		$1 	# if no $1, assume it means on this page.
		    ?  "the section on I<$2> in the I<$1> manpage"
		    :  "the section on I<$2>"
	    }
	}gesx; # s in case it goes over multiple lines, so . matches \n

	s/Z<>/\\&/g;

	# comes last because not subject to reprocessing
	s/C<($nonest)>/noremap("${CFont_embed}${1}\\fR")/eg;
    }

    if (s/^=//) {
	$needspace = 0;		# Assume this.

	s/\n/ /g;

	($Cmd, $_) = split(' ', $_, 2);

	$dotlevel = 1;
	if ($Cmd eq 'head1') {
	   $dotlevel = 1;
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'head2') {
	   $dotlevel = 1;
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'item') {
	   $dotlevel = 2;
	}

	if (defined $_) {
	    &escapes($dotlevel);
	    s/"/""/g;
	}

	clear_noremap(1);

	if ($Cmd eq 'cut') {
	    $cutting = 1;
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'head1') {
	    s/\s+$//;
	    delete $wanna_see{$_} if exists $wanna_see{$_};
	    print qq{.SH "$_"\n};
      push(@Indices, qq{.IX Header "$_"\n});
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'head2') {
	    print qq{.Sh "$_"\n};
      push(@Indices, qq{.IX Subsection "$_"\n});
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'over') {
	    push(@indent,$indent);
	    $indent += ($_ + 0) || 5;
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'back') {
	    $indent = pop(@indent);
	    warn "$0: Unmatched =back in paragraph $. of $ARGV\n" unless defined $indent;
	    $needspace = 1;
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'item') {
	    s/^\*( |$)/\\(bu$1/g;
	    # if you know how to get ":s please do
	    s/\\\*\(L"([^"]+?)\\\*\(R"/'$1'/g;
	    s/\\\*\(L"([^"]+?)""/'$1'/g;
	    s/[^"]""([^"]+?)""[^"]/'$1'/g;
	    # here do something about the $" in perlvar?
	    print STDOUT qq{.Ip "$_" $indent\n};
      push(@Indices, qq{.IX Item "$_"\n});
	}
	elsif ($Cmd eq 'pod') {
	    # this is just a comment
	} 
	else {
	    warn "$0: Unrecognized pod directive in paragraph $. of $ARGV: $Cmd\n";
	}
    }
    else {
	if ($needspace) {
	    &makespace;
	}
	&escapes(0);
	clear_noremap(1);
	print $_, "\n";
	$needspace = 1;
    }
}

print <<"END";

.rn }` ''
END

if (%wanna_see && !$lax) {
    @missing = keys %wanna_see;
    warn "$0: $Filename is missing required section"
	.  (@missing > 1 && "s")
	.  ": @missing\n";
    $oops++;
}

foreach (@Indices) { print "$_\n"; }

exit;
#exit ($oops != 0);

#########################################################################

sub nobreak {
    my $string = shift;
    $string =~ s/ /\\ /g;
    $string;
}

sub escapes {
    my $indot = shift;

    s/X<(.*?)>/mkindex($1)/ge;

    # translate the minus in foo-bar into foo\-bar for roff
    s/([^0-9a-z-])-([^-])/$1\\-$2/g;

    # make -- into the string version \*(-- (defined above)
    s/\b--\b/\\*(--/g;
    s/"--([^"])/"\\*(--$1/g;  # should be a better way
    s/([^"])--"/$1\\*(--"/g;

    # fix up quotes; this is somewhat tricky
    my $dotmacroL = 'L';
    my $dotmacroR = 'R';
    if ( $indot == 1 ) {
	$dotmacroL = 'M';
	$dotmacroR = 'S';
    }  
    elsif ( $indot >= 2 ) {
	$dotmacroL = 'N';
	$dotmacroR = 'T';
    }  
    if (!/""/) {
	s/(^|\s)(['"])/noremap("$1\\*($dotmacroL$2")/ge;
	s/(['"])($|[\-\s,;\\!?.])/noremap("\\*($dotmacroR$1$2")/ge;
    }

    #s/(?!")(?:.)--(?!")(?:.)/\\*(--/g;
    #s/(?:(?!")(?:.)--(?:"))|(?:(?:")--(?!")(?:.))/\\*(--/g;


    # make sure that func() keeps a bit a space tween the parens
    ### s/\b\(\)/\\|()/g;
    ### s/\b\(\)/(\\|)/g;

    # make C++ into \*C+, which is a squinched version (defined above)
    s/\bC\+\+/\\*(C+/g;

    # make double underbars have a little tiny space between them
    s/__/_\\|_/g;

    # PI goes to \*(PI (defined above)
    s/\bPI\b/noremap('\\*(PI')/ge;

    # make all caps a teeny bit smaller, but don't muck with embedded code literals
    my $hidCFont = font('C');
    if ($Cmd !~ /^head1/) { # SH already makes smaller
	# /g isn't enough; 1 while or we'll be off

#	1 while s{
#	    (?!$hidCFont)(..|^.|^)
#	    \b
#	    (
#		[A-Z][\/A-Z+:\-\d_$.]+
#	    )
#	    (s?) 		
#	    \b
#	} {$1\\s-1$2\\s0}gmox;

	1 while s{
	    (?!$hidCFont)(..|^.|^)
	    (
		\b[A-Z]{2,}[\/A-Z+:\-\d_\$]*\b
	    )
	} {
	    $1 . noremap( '\\s-1' .  $2 . '\\s0' )
	}egmox;

    }
}

# make troff just be normal, but make small nroff get quoted
# decided to just put the quotes in the text; sigh;
sub ccvt {
    local($_,$prev) = @_;
    noremap(qq{.CQ "$_" \n\\&});
}

sub makespace {
    if ($indent) {
	print ".Sp\n";
    }
    else {
	print ".PP\n";
    }
}

sub mkindex {
    my ($entry) = @_;
    my @entries = split m:\s*/\s*:, $entry;
    push @Indices, ".IX Xref " . join ' ', map {qq("$_")} @entries;
    return '';
}

sub font {
    local($font) = shift;
    return '\\f' . noremap($font);
}

sub noremap {
    local($thing_to_hide) = shift;
    $thing_to_hide =~ tr/\000-\177/\200-\377/;
    return $thing_to_hide;
}

sub init_noremap {
	# escape high bit characters in input stream
	s/([\200-\377])/"E<".ord($1).">"/ge;
}

sub clear_noremap {
    my $ready_to_print = $_[0];

    tr/\200-\377/\000-\177/;

    # trofficate backslashes
    # s/(?!\\e)(?:..|^.|^)\\/\\e/g;

    # now for the E<>s, which have been hidden until now
    # otherwise the interative \w<> processing would have
    # been hosed by the E<gt>
    s {
	    E<
	    (
	        ( \d + ) 
	        | ( [A-Za-z]+ )	
	    )
	    >	
    } {
	 do {
	     defined $2
		? chr($2)
		:	
	     exists $HTML_Escapes{$3}
		? do { $HTML_Escapes{$3} }
		: do {
		    warn "$0: Unknown escape in paragraph $. of $ARGV: ``$&''\n";
		    "E<$1>";
		}
	 }
    }egx if $ready_to_print;
}

sub internal_lrefs {
    local($_) = shift;
    local $trailing_and = s/and\s+$// ? "and " : "";

    s{L</([^>]+)>}{$1}g;
    my(@items) = split( /(?:,?\s+(?:and\s+)?)/ );
    my $retstr = "the ";
    my $i;
    for ($i = 0; $i <= $#items; $i++) {
	$retstr .= "C<$items[$i]>";
	$retstr .= ", " if @items > 2 && $i != $#items;
	$retstr .= " and " if $i+2 == @items;
    }

    $retstr .= " entr" . ( @items > 1  ? "ies" : "y" )
	    .  " elsewhere in this document";
    # terminal space to avoid words running together (pattern used
    # strips terminal spaces)
    $retstr .= " " if length $trailing_and;
    $retstr .=  $trailing_and;

    return $retstr;

}

BEGIN {
%HTML_Escapes = (
    'amp'	=>	'&',	#   ampersand
    'lt'	=>	'<',	#   left chevron, less-than
    'gt'	=>	'>',	#   right chevron, greater-than
    'quot'	=>	'"',	#   double quote

    "Aacute"	=>	"A\\*'",	#   capital A, acute accent
    "aacute"	=>	"a\\*'",	#   small a, acute accent
    "Acirc"	=>	"A\\*^",	#   capital A, circumflex accent
    "acirc"	=>	"a\\*^",	#   small a, circumflex accent
    "AElig"	=>	'\*(AE',	#   capital AE diphthong (ligature)
    "aelig"	=>	'\*(ae',	#   small ae diphthong (ligature)
    "Agrave"	=>	"A\\*`",	#   capital A, grave accent
    "agrave"	=>	"A\\*`",	#   small a, grave accent
    "Aring"	=>	'A\\*o',	#   capital A, ring
    "aring"	=>	'a\\*o',	#   small a, ring
    "Atilde"	=>	'A\\*~',	#   capital A, tilde
    "atilde"	=>	'a\\*~',	#   small a, tilde
    "Auml"	=>	'A\\*:',	#   capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "auml"	=>	'a\\*:',	#   small a, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "Ccedil"	=>	'C\\*,',	#   capital C, cedilla
    "ccedil"	=>	'c\\*,',	#   small c, cedilla
    "Eacute"	=>	"E\\*'",	#   capital E, acute accent
    "eacute"	=>	"e\\*'",	#   small e, acute accent
    "Ecirc"	=>	"E\\*^",	#   capital E, circumflex accent
    "ecirc"	=>	"e\\*^",	#   small e, circumflex accent
    "Egrave"	=>	"E\\*`",	#   capital E, grave accent
    "egrave"	=>	"e\\*`",	#   small e, grave accent
    "ETH"	=>	'\\*(D-',	#   capital Eth, Icelandic
    "eth"	=>	'\\*(d-',	#   small eth, Icelandic
    "Euml"	=>	"E\\*:",	#   capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "euml"	=>	"e\\*:",	#   small e, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "Iacute"	=>	"I\\*'",	#   capital I, acute accent
    "iacute"	=>	"i\\*'",	#   small i, acute accent
    "Icirc"	=>	"I\\*^",	#   capital I, circumflex accent
    "icirc"	=>	"i\\*^",	#   small i, circumflex accent
    "Igrave"	=>	"I\\*`",	#   capital I, grave accent
    "igrave"	=>	"i\\*`",	#   small i, grave accent
    "Iuml"	=>	"I\\*:",	#   capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "iuml"	=>	"i\\*:",	#   small i, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "Ntilde"	=>	'N\*~',		#   capital N, tilde
    "ntilde"	=>	'n\*~',		#   small n, tilde
    "Oacute"	=>	"O\\*'",	#   capital O, acute accent
    "oacute"	=>	"o\\*'",	#   small o, acute accent
    "Ocirc"	=>	"O\\*^",	#   capital O, circumflex accent
    "ocirc"	=>	"o\\*^",	#   small o, circumflex accent
    "Ograve"	=>	"O\\*`",	#   capital O, grave accent
    "ograve"	=>	"o\\*`",	#   small o, grave accent
    "Oslash"	=>	"O\\*/",	#   capital O, slash
    "oslash"	=>	"o\\*/",	#   small o, slash
    "Otilde"	=>	"O\\*~",	#   capital O, tilde
    "otilde"	=>	"o\\*~",	#   small o, tilde
    "Ouml"	=>	"O\\*:",	#   capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "ouml"	=>	"o\\*:",	#   small o, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "szlig"	=>	'\*8',		#   small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
    "THORN"	=>	'\\*(Th',	#   capital THORN, Icelandic
    "thorn"	=>	'\\*(th',,	#   small thorn, Icelandic
    "Uacute"	=>	"U\\*'",	#   capital U, acute accent
    "uacute"	=>	"u\\*'",	#   small u, acute accent
    "Ucirc"	=>	"U\\*^",	#   capital U, circumflex accent
    "ucirc"	=>	"u\\*^",	#   small u, circumflex accent
    "Ugrave"	=>	"U\\*`",	#   capital U, grave accent
    "ugrave"	=>	"u\\*`",	#   small u, grave accent
    "Uuml"	=>	"U\\*:",	#   capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "uuml"	=>	"u\\*:",	#   small u, dieresis or umlaut mark
    "Yacute"	=>	"Y\\*'",	#   capital Y, acute accent
    "yacute"	=>	"y\\*'",	#   small y, acute accent
    "yuml"	=>	"y\\*:",	#   small y, dieresis or umlaut mark
);
}