suexec.html.en 28.7 KB
Newer Older
powelld's avatar
powelld committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "">
<html xmlns="" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><head>
<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
              This file is generated from xml source: DO NOT EDIT
<title>suEXEC Support - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</title>
<link href="./style/css/manual.css" rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="Main stylesheet" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-loose-100pc.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="No Sidebar - Default font size" />
<link href="./style/css/manual-print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="./style/css/prettify.css" />
<script src="./style/scripts/prettify.min.js" type="text/javascript">

<link href="./images/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" /></head>
<body id="manual-page"><div id="page-header">
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p>
<p class="apache">Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</p>
<img alt="" src="./images/feather.png" /></div>
<div class="up"><a href="./"><img title="&lt;-" alt="&lt;-" src="./images/left.gif" /></a></div>
<div id="path">
<a href="">Apache</a> &gt; <a href="">HTTP Server</a> &gt; <a href="">Documentation</a> &gt; <a href="./">Version 2.4</a></div><div id="page-content"><div id="preamble"><h1>suEXEC Support</h1>
<div class="toplang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./en/suexec.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/suexec.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Français">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/suexec.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/suexec.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/suexec.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Türkçe">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a></p>

    <p>The <strong>suEXEC</strong> feature provides users of the Apache
    HTTP Server the ability
    to run <strong>CGI</strong> and <strong>SSI</strong> programs
    under user IDs different from the user ID of the calling
    web server. Normally, when a CGI or SSI program executes, it
    runs as the same user who is running the web server.</p>

    <p>Used properly, this feature can reduce
    considerably the security risks involved with allowing users to
    develop and run private CGI or SSI programs. However, if suEXEC
    is improperly configured, it can cause any number of problems
    and possibly create new holes in your computer's security. If
    you aren't familiar with managing <em>setuid root</em> programs
    and the security issues they present, we highly recommend that
    you not consider using suEXEC.</p>
<div id="quickview"><a href="" class="badge"><img src="" alt="Support Apache!" /></a><ul id="toc"><li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#before">Before we begin</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#model">suEXEC Security Model</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#install">Configuring &amp; Installing
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#enable">Enabling &amp; Disabling
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#usage">Using suEXEC</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#debug">Debugging suEXEC</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="./images/down.gif" /> <a href="#jabberwock">Beware the Jabberwock:
    Warnings &amp; Examples</a></li>
</ul><h3>See also</h3><ul class="seealso"><li><a href="#comments_section">Comments</a></li></ul></div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="before" id="before">Before we begin</a></h2>

    <p>Before jumping head-first into this document,
    you should be aware that certain assumptions are made about you and
    the environment in which you will be using suexec.</p>

    <p>First, it is assumed that you are using a UNIX
    derivative operating system that is capable of
    <strong>setuid</strong> and <strong>setgid</strong> operations.
    All command examples are given in this regard. Other platforms,
    if they are capable of supporting suEXEC, may differ in their

    <p>Second, it is assumed you are familiar with
    some basic concepts of your computer's security and its
    administration. This involves an understanding of
    <strong>setuid/setgid</strong> operations and the various
    effects they may have on your system and its level of

    <p>Third, it is assumed that you are using an
    <strong>unmodified</strong> version of suEXEC code. All code
    for suEXEC has been carefully scrutinized and tested by the
    developers as well as numerous beta testers. Every precaution
    has been taken to ensure a simple yet solidly safe base of
    code. Altering this code can cause unexpected problems and new
    security risks. It is <strong>highly</strong> recommended you
    not alter the suEXEC code unless you are well versed in the
    particulars of security programming and are willing to share
    your work with the Apache HTTP Server development team for consideration.</p>

    <p>Fourth, and last, it has been the decision of
    the Apache HTTP Server development team to <strong>NOT</strong> make suEXEC part of
    the default installation of Apache httpd. To this end, suEXEC
    configuration requires of the administrator careful attention
    to details. After due consideration has been given to the
    various settings for suEXEC, the administrator may install
    suEXEC through normal installation methods. The values for
    these settings need to be carefully determined and specified by
    the administrator to properly maintain system security during
    the use of suEXEC functionality. It is through this detailed
    process that we hope to limit suEXEC
    installation only to those who are careful and determined
    enough to use it.</p>

    <p>Still with us? Yes? Good. Let's move on!</p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="model" id="model">suEXEC Security Model</a></h2>

    <p>Before we begin configuring and installing
    suEXEC, we will first discuss the security model you are about
    to implement. By doing so, you may better understand what
    exactly is going on inside suEXEC and what precautions are
    taken to ensure your system's security.</p>

    <p><strong>suEXEC</strong> is based on a setuid
    "wrapper" program that is called by the main Apache HTTP Server.
    This wrapper is called when an HTTP request is made for a CGI
    or SSI program that the administrator has designated to run as
    a userid other than that of the main server. When such a
    request is made, Apache httpd provides the suEXEC wrapper with the
    program's name and the user and group IDs under which the
    program is to execute.</p>

    <p>The wrapper then employs the following process
    to determine success or failure -- if any one of these
    conditions fail, the program logs the failure and exits with an
    error, otherwise it will continue:</p>

        <strong>Is the user executing this wrapper a valid user of
        this system?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          This is to ensure that the user executing the wrapper is
          truly a user of the system.

        <strong>Was the wrapper called with the proper number of

        <p class="indent">
          The wrapper will only execute if it is given the proper
          number of arguments. The proper argument format is known
          to the Apache HTTP Server. If the wrapper is not receiving
          the proper number of arguments, it is either being
          hacked, or there is something wrong with the suEXEC
          portion of your Apache httpd binary.

        <strong>Is this valid user allowed to run the

        <p class="indent">
          Is this user the user allowed to run this wrapper? Only
          one user (the Apache user) is allowed to execute this

        <strong>Does the target CGI or SSI program have an unsafe
        hierarchical reference?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          Does the target CGI or SSI program's path contain a leading
          '/' or have a '..' backreference? These are not allowed; the
          target CGI/SSI program must reside within suEXEC's document
          root (see <code>--with-suexec-docroot=<em>DIR</em></code>

        <strong>Is the target user name valid?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          Does the target user exist?

        <strong>Is the target group name valid?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          Does the target group exist?

        <strong>Is the target user <em>NOT</em> superuser?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          suEXEC does not allow <code><em>root</em></code>
          to execute CGI/SSI programs.

        <strong>Is the target userid <em>ABOVE</em> the minimum ID

        <p class="indent">
          The minimum user ID number is specified during
          configuration. This allows you to set the lowest possible
          userid that will be allowed to execute CGI/SSI programs.
          This is useful to block out "system" accounts.

        <strong>Is the target group <em>NOT</em> the superuser

        <p class="indent">
          Presently, suEXEC does not allow the <code><em>root</em></code>
          group to execute CGI/SSI programs.

        <strong>Is the target groupid <em>ABOVE</em> the minimum ID

        <p class="indent">
          The minimum group ID number is specified during
          configuration. This allows you to set the lowest possible
          groupid that will be allowed to execute CGI/SSI programs.
          This is useful to block out "system" groups.

        <strong>Can the wrapper successfully become the target user
        and group?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          Here is where the program becomes the target user and
          group via setuid and setgid calls. The group access list
          is also initialized with all of the groups of which the
          user is a member.

        <strong>Can we change directory to the one in which the target
        CGI/SSI program resides?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          If it doesn't exist, it can't very well contain files. If we
          can't change directory to it, it might as well not exist.

        <strong>Is the directory within the httpd webspace?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          If the request is for a regular portion of the server, is
          the requested directory within suEXEC's document root? If
          the request is for a <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html#userdir">UserDir</a></code>, is the requested directory
          within the directory configured as suEXEC's userdir (see
          <a href="#install">suEXEC's configuration options</a>)?

        <strong>Is the directory <em>NOT</em> writable by anyone

        <p class="indent">
          We don't want to open up the directory to others; only
          the owner user may be able to alter this directories

        <strong>Does the target CGI/SSI program exist?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          If it doesn't exists, it can't very well be executed.

        <strong>Is the target CGI/SSI program <em>NOT</em> writable
        by anyone else?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          We don't want to give anyone other than the owner the
          ability to change the CGI/SSI program.

        <strong>Is the target CGI/SSI program <em>NOT</em> setuid or

        <p class="indent">
          We do not want to execute programs that will then change
          our UID/GID again.

        <strong>Is the target user/group the same as the program's

        <p class="indent">
          Is the user the owner of the file?

        <strong>Can we successfully clean the process environment
        to ensure safe operations?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          suEXEC cleans the process' environment by establishing a
          safe execution PATH (defined during configuration), as
          well as only passing through those variables whose names
          are listed in the safe environment list (also created
          during configuration).

        <strong>Can we successfully become the target CGI/SSI program
        and execute?</strong>

        <p class="indent">
          Here is where suEXEC ends and the target CGI/SSI program begins.

    <p>This is the standard operation of the
    suEXEC wrapper's security model. It is somewhat stringent and
    can impose new limitations and guidelines for CGI/SSI design,
    but it was developed carefully step-by-step with security in

    <p>For more information as to how this security
    model can limit your possibilities in regards to server
    configuration, as well as what security risks can be avoided
    with a proper suEXEC setup, see the <a href="#jabberwock">"Beware the Jabberwock"</a> section of this
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="install" id="install">Configuring &amp; Installing

    <p>Here's where we begin the fun.</p>

    <p><strong>suEXEC configuration
    options</strong><br />


      <dd>This option enables the suEXEC feature which is never
      installed or activated by default. At least one
      <code>--with-suexec-xxxxx</code> option has to be provided
      together with the <code>--enable-suexec</code> option to let
      APACI accept your request for using the suEXEC feature.</dd>


      <dd>The path to the <code>suexec</code> binary must be hard-coded
      in the server for security reasons. Use this option to override
      the default path. <em>e.g.</em>


      <dd>The <a href="mod/mpm_common.html#user">username</a> under which
      httpd normally runs. This is the only user allowed to
      execute the suEXEC wrapper.</dd>


      <dd>Define to be the subdirectory under users' home
      directories where suEXEC access should be allowed. All
      executables under this directory will be executable by suEXEC
      as the user so they should be "safe" programs. If you are
      using a "simple" <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html#userdir">UserDir</a></code>
      directive (ie. one without a "*" in it) this should be set to the same
      value. suEXEC will not work properly in cases where the <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html#userdir">UserDir</a></code> directive points to
      a location that is not the same as the user's home directory
      as referenced in the <code>passwd</code> file. Default value is
      "<code>public_html</code>".<br />
      If you have virtual hosts with a different <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html#userdir">UserDir</a></code> for each,
      you will need to define them to all reside in one parent
      directory; then name that parent directory here. <strong>If
      this is not defined properly, "~userdir" cgi requests will
      not work!</strong></dd>


      <dd>Define as the DocumentRoot set for httpd. This will be
      the only hierarchy (aside from <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html#userdir">UserDir</a></code>s) that can be used for suEXEC behavior. The
      default directory is the <code>--datadir</code> value with the suffix
      "<code>/htdocs</code>", <em>e.g.</em> if you configure with
      "<code>--datadir=/home/apache</code>" the directory
      "<code>/home/apache/htdocs</code>" is used as document root for the
      suEXEC wrapper.</dd>


      <dd>Define this as the lowest UID allowed to be a target user
      for suEXEC. For most systems, 500 or 100 is common. Default
      value is 100.</dd>


      <dd>Define this as the lowest GID allowed to be a target
      group for suEXEC. For most systems, 100 is common and
      therefore used as default value.</dd>


      <dd>This defines the filename to which all suEXEC
      transactions and errors are logged (useful for auditing and
      debugging purposes). By default the logfile is named
      "<code>suexec_log</code>" and located in your standard logfile
      directory (<code>--logfiledir</code>).</dd>


      <dd>Define a safe PATH environment to pass to CGI
      executables. Default value is

    <h3>Compiling and installing the suEXEC wrapper</h3>

      <p>If you have enabled the suEXEC feature with the
      <code>--enable-suexec</code> option the <code>suexec</code> binary
      (together with httpd itself) is automatically built if you execute
      the <code>make</code> command.</p>

      <p>After all components have been built you can execute the
      command <code>make install</code> to install them. The binary image
      <code>suexec</code> is installed in the directory defined by the
      <code>--sbindir</code> option. The default location is

      <p>Please note that you need <strong><em>root
      privileges</em></strong> for the installation step. In order
      for the wrapper to set the user ID, it must be installed as
      owner <code><em>root</em></code> and must have the setuserid
      execution bit set for file modes.</p>

    <h3>Setting paranoid permissions</h3>

      <p>Although the suEXEC wrapper will check to ensure that its
      caller is the correct user as specified with the
      <code>--with-suexec-caller</code> <code class="program"><a href="./programs/configure.html">configure</a></code>
      option, there is
      always the possibility that a system or library call suEXEC uses
      before this check may be exploitable on your system. To counter
      this, and because it is best-practise in general, you should use
      filesystem permissions to ensure that only the group httpd
      runs as may execute suEXEC.</p>

      <p>If for example, your web server is configured to run as:</p>

      <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">User www
Group webgroup</pre>

      <p>and <code class="program"><a href="./programs/suexec.html">suexec</a></code> is installed at
      "/usr/local/apache2/bin/suexec", you should run:</p>

      <div class="example"><p><code>
          chgrp webgroup /usr/local/apache2/bin/suexec<br />
          chmod 4750 /usr/local/apache2/bin/suexec<br />

      <p>This will ensure that only the group httpd runs as can even
      execute the suEXEC wrapper.</p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="enable" id="enable">Enabling &amp; Disabling

    <p>Upon startup of httpd, it looks for the file
    <code class="program"><a href="./programs/suexec.html">suexec</a></code> in the directory defined by the
    <code>--sbindir</code> option (default is
    "/usr/local/apache/sbin/suexec"). If httpd finds a properly
    configured suEXEC wrapper, it will print the following message
    to the error log:</p>

<div class="example"><p><code>
    [notice] suEXEC mechanism enabled (wrapper: <var>/path/to/suexec</var>)

    <p>If you don't see this message at server startup, the server is
    most likely not finding the wrapper program where it expects
    it, or the executable is not installed <em>setuid root</em>.</p>

     <p>If you want to enable the suEXEC mechanism for the first time
    and an Apache HTTP Server is already running you must kill and
    restart httpd. Restarting it with a simple HUP or USR1 signal
    will not be enough. </p>
     <p>If you want to disable suEXEC you should kill and restart
    httpd after you have removed the <code class="program"><a href="./programs/suexec.html">suexec</a></code> file.</p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="usage" id="usage">Using suEXEC</a></h2>

    <p>Requests for CGI programs will call the suEXEC wrapper only if
    they are for a virtual host containing a <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_suexec.html#suexecusergroup">SuexecUserGroup</a></code> directive or if
    they are processed by <code class="module"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html">mod_userdir</a></code>.</p>

    <p><strong>Virtual Hosts:</strong><br /> One way to use the suEXEC
    wrapper is through the <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/mod_suexec.html#suexecusergroup">SuexecUserGroup</a></code> directive in
    <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">VirtualHost</a></code> definitions.  By
    setting this directive to values different from the main server
    user ID, all requests for CGI resources will be executed as the
    <em>User</em> and <em>Group</em> defined for that <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code>. If this
    directive is not specified for a <code class="directive"><a href="./mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code> then the main server userid
    is assumed.</p>

    <p><strong>User directories:</strong><br /> Requests that are
     processed by <code class="module"><a href="./mod/mod_userdir.html">mod_userdir</a></code> will call the suEXEC
     wrapper to execute CGI programs under the userid of the requested
     user directory.  The only requirement needed for this feature to
     work is for CGI execution to be enabled for the user and that the
     script must meet the scrutiny of the <a href="#model">security
     checks</a> above.  See also the
     <code>--with-suexec-userdir</code> <a href="#install">compile
     time option</a>.</p> </div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="debug" id="debug">Debugging suEXEC</a></h2>

    <p>The suEXEC wrapper will write log information
    to the file defined with the <code>--with-suexec-logfile</code>
    option as indicated above. If you feel you have configured and
    installed the wrapper properly, have a look at this log and the
    error_log for the server to see where you may have gone astray.</p>

</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="./images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="jabberwock" id="jabberwock">Beware the Jabberwock:
    Warnings &amp; Examples</a></h2>

    <p><strong>NOTE!</strong> This section may not be
    complete. For the latest revision of this section of the
    documentation, see the <a href="">Online
    Documentation</a> version.</p>

    <p>There are a few points of interest regarding
    the wrapper that can cause limitations on server setup. Please
    review these before submitting any "bugs" regarding suEXEC.</p>

      <li><strong>suEXEC Points Of Interest</strong></li>

        Hierarchy limitations

        <p class="indent">
          For security and efficiency reasons, all suEXEC requests
          must remain within either a top-level document root for
          virtual host requests, or one top-level personal document
          root for userdir requests. For example, if you have four
          VirtualHosts configured, you would need to structure all
          of your VHosts' document roots off of one main httpd
          document hierarchy to take advantage of suEXEC for
          VirtualHosts. (Example forthcoming.)

        suEXEC's PATH environment variable

        <p class="indent">
          This can be a dangerous thing to change. Make certain
          every path you include in this define is a
          <strong>trusted</strong> directory. You don't want to
          open people up to having someone from across the world
          running a trojan horse on them.

        Altering the suEXEC code

        <p class="indent">
          Again, this can cause <strong>Big Trouble</strong> if you
          try this without knowing what you are doing. Stay away
          from it if at all possible.

<div class="bottomlang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="./en/suexec.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./fr/suexec.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Français">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ja/suexec.html" hreflang="ja" rel="alternate" title="Japanese">&nbsp;ja&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./ko/suexec.html" hreflang="ko" rel="alternate" title="Korean">&nbsp;ko&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="./tr/suexec.html" hreflang="tr" rel="alternate" title="Türkçe">&nbsp;tr&nbsp;</a></p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img src="./images/up.gif" alt="top" /></a></div><div class="section"><h2><a id="comments_section" name="comments_section">Comments</a></h2><div class="warning"><strong>Notice:</strong><br />This is not a Q&amp;A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our <a href="">mailing lists</a>.</div>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
var comments_shortname = 'httpd';
var comments_identifier = '';
(function(w, d) {
    if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "") {
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
        var s = d.createElement('script');
        s.type = 'text/javascript';
        s.async = true;
        s.src = '' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
        (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
    else { 
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread">Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.<\/div>');
})(window, document);
//--><!]]></script></div><div id="footer">
<p class="apache">Copyright 2017 The Apache Software Foundation.<br />Licensed under the <a href="">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.</p>
<p class="menu"><a href="./mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="./mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="">FAQ</a> | <a href="./glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="./sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p></div><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
if (typeof(prettyPrint) !== 'undefined') {