mod_macro.html.en 15 KB
Newer Older
powelld's avatar
powelld committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"><head>
<meta content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1" http-equiv="Content-Type" />
<!--
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
              This file is generated from xml source: DO NOT EDIT
        XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
      -->
<title>mod_macro - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</title>
<link href="../style/css/manual.css" rel="stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="Main stylesheet" />
<link href="../style/css/manual-loose-100pc.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" media="all" type="text/css" title="No Sidebar - Default font size" />
<link href="../style/css/manual-print.css" rel="stylesheet" media="print" type="text/css" /><link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="../style/css/prettify.css" />
<script src="../style/scripts/prettify.min.js" type="text/javascript">
</script>

<link href="../images/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" /></head>
<body>
<div id="page-header">
<p class="menu"><a href="../mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="../mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="../glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="../sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p>
<p class="apache">Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4</p>
<img alt="" src="../images/feather.png" /></div>
<div class="up"><a href="./"><img title="&lt;-" alt="&lt;-" src="../images/left.gif" /></a></div>
<div id="path">
<a href="http://www.apache.org/">Apache</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/">HTTP Server</a> &gt; <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/">Documentation</a> &gt; <a href="../">Version 2.4</a> &gt; <a href="./">Modules</a></div>
<div id="page-content">
<div id="preamble"><h1>Apache Module mod_macro</h1>
<div class="toplang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="../en/mod/mod_macro.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="../fr/mod/mod_macro.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a></p>
</div>
<table class="module"><tr><th><a href="module-dict.html#Description">Description:</a></th><td>Provides macros within apache httpd runtime configuration files</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="module-dict.html#Status">Status:</a></th><td>Base</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="module-dict.html#ModuleIdentifier">ModuleIdentifier:</a></th><td>macro_module</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="module-dict.html#SourceFile">SourceFile:</a></th><td>mod_macro.c</td></tr></table>
<h3>Summary</h3>


    <p>Provides macros within Apache httpd runtime configuration files,
    to ease the process of creating numerous similar configuration
    blocks. When the server starts up, the macros are expanded using the
    provided parameters, and the result is processed as along with the
    rest of the configuration file.</p>

</div>
<div id="quickview"><a href="https://www.apache.org/foundation/contributing.html" class="badge"><img src="https://www.apache.org/images/SupportApache-small.png" alt="Support Apache!" /></a><h3>Topics</h3>
<ul id="topics">
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#usage">Usage</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#tips">Tips</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#examples">Examples</a></li>
</ul><h3 class="directives">Directives</h3>
<ul id="toc">
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#macro">&lt;Macro&gt;</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#undefmacro">UndefMacro</a></li>
<li><img alt="" src="../images/down.gif" /> <a href="#use">Use</a></li>
</ul>
<h3>Bugfix checklist</h3><ul class="seealso"><li><a href="https://www.apache.org/dist/httpd/CHANGES_2.4">httpd changelog</a></li><li><a href="https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/buglist.cgi?bug_status=__open__&amp;list_id=144532&amp;product=Apache%20httpd-2&amp;query_format=specific&amp;order=changeddate%20DESC%2Cpriority%2Cbug_severity&amp;component=mod_macro">Known issues</a></li><li><a href="https://bz.apache.org/bugzilla/enter_bug.cgi?product=Apache%20httpd-2&amp;component=mod_macro">Report a bug</a></li></ul><h3>See also</h3>
<ul class="seealso">
<li><a href="#comments_section">Comments</a></li></ul></div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="usage" id="usage">Usage</a></h2>

<p>Macros are defined using <code class="directive"><a href="#macro">&lt;Macro&gt;</a></code> blocks, which contain the portion of
your configuration that needs to be repeated, complete with variables
for those parts that will need to be substituted.</p>

<p>For example, you might use a macro to define a <code class="directive"><a href="../mod/core.html#virtualhost">&lt;VirtualHost&gt;</a></code> block, in order to define
multiple similar virtual hosts:</p>

<pre class="prettyprint lang-config">&lt;Macro VHost $name $domain&gt;
&lt;VirtualHost *:80&gt;
    ServerName $domain
    ServerAlias www.$domain

    DocumentRoot "/var/www/vhosts/$name"
    ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd/$name.error_log"
    CustomLog "/var/log/httpd/$name.access_log" combined
&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
&lt;/Macro&gt;</pre>


<p>Macro names are case-insensitive, like httpd configuration
directives. However, variable names are case sensitive.</p>

<p>You would then invoke this macro several times to create virtual
hosts:</p>

<pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Use VHost example example.com
Use VHost myhost hostname.org
Use VHost apache apache.org

UndefMacro VHost</pre>


<p>At server startup time, each of these <code class="directive"><a href="#use">Use</a></code>
invocations would be expanded into a full virtualhost, as
described by the <code class="directive"><a href="#macro">&lt;Macro&gt;</a></code>
definition.</p>

<p>The <code class="directive"><a href="#undefmacro">UndefMacro</a></code> directive is
used so that later macros using the same variable names don't result in
conflicting definitions.</p>

<p>A more elaborate version of this example may be seen below in the
Examples section.</p>

</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="tips" id="tips">Tips</a></h2>

<p>Parameter names should begin with a sigil such as <code>$</code>,
<code>%</code>, or <code>@</code>, so that they are clearly
identifiable, and also in order to help deal with interactions with
other directives, such as the core <code class="directive"><a href="../mod/core.html#define">Define</a></code> directive. Failure to do so will 
result in a warning. Nevertheless, you are encouraged to have a good
knowledge of your entire server configuration in order to avoid reusing
the same variables in different scopes, which can cause confusion.</p>

<p>Parameters prefixed with either <code>$</code> or <code>%</code> are
not escaped. Parameters prefixes with <code>@</code> are escaped in
quotes.</p>

<p>Avoid using a parameter which contains another parameter as a prefix,
(For example, <code>$win</code> and <code>$winter</code>) as this may
cause confusion at expression evaluation time. In the event of such
confusion, the longest possible parameter name is used.</p>

<p>If you want to use a value within another string, it is useful to
surround the parameter in braces, to avoid confusion:</p>

<pre class="prettyprint lang-config">&lt;Macro DocRoot ${docroot}&gt;
    DocumentRoot "/var/www/${docroot}/htdocs"
&lt;/Macro&gt;</pre>


</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="section">
<h2><a name="examples" id="examples">Examples</a></h2>


<h3>Virtual Host Definition</h3>


<p>A common usage of <code class="module"><a href="../mod/mod_macro.html">mod_macro</a></code> is for the creation of
dynamically-generated virtual hosts.</p>

<pre class="prettyprint lang-config">## Define a VHost Macro for repetitive configurations

&lt;Macro VHost $host $port $dir&gt;
  Listen $port
  &lt;VirtualHost *:$port&gt;

    ServerName $host
    DocumentRoot "$dir"

    # Public document root
    &lt;Directory "$dir"&gt;
        Require all granted
    &lt;/Directory&gt;

    # limit access to intranet subdir.
    &lt;Directory "$dir/intranet"&gt;
      Require ip 10.0.0.0/8
    &lt;/Directory&gt;
  &lt;/VirtualHost&gt;
&lt;/Macro&gt;

## Use of VHost with different arguments.

Use VHost www.apache.org 80 /vhosts/apache/htdocs
Use VHost example.org 8080 /vhosts/example/htdocs
Use VHost www.example.fr 1234 /vhosts/example.fr/htdocs</pre>

 

<h3>Removal of a macro definition</h3>


<p>It's recommended that you undefine a macro once you've used it. This
avoids confusion in a complex configuration file where there may be
conflicts in variable names.</p>

<pre class="prettyprint lang-config">&lt;Macro DirGroup $dir $group&gt;
  &lt;Directory "$dir"&gt;
    Require group $group
  &lt;/Directory&gt;
&lt;/Macro&gt;

Use DirGroup /www/apache/private private
Use DirGroup /www/apache/server  admin

UndefMacro DirGroup</pre>


 

</div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="directive-section"><h2><a name="Macro" id="Macro">&lt;Macro&gt;</a> <a name="macro" id="macro">Directive</a></h2>
<table class="directive">
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Description">Description:</a></th><td>Define a configuration file macro</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Syntax">Syntax:</a></th><td><code>
&lt;Macro <var>name</var> [<var>par1</var> .. <var>parN</var>]&gt;
... &lt;/Macro&gt;</code></td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Context">Context:</a></th><td>server config, virtual host, directory</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Status">Status:</a></th><td>Base</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Module">Module:</a></th><td>mod_macro</td></tr>
</table>
    <p>The <code class="directive">&lt;Macro&gt;</code> directive controls the
    definition of a macro within the server runtime configuration files.
    The first argument is the name of the macro.
    Other arguments are parameters to the macro. It is good practice to prefix
    parameter names with any of '<code>$%@</code>', and not macro names
    with such characters.
    </p>

    <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">&lt;Macro LocalAccessPolicy&gt;
    Require ip 10.2.16.0/24
&lt;/Macro&gt;

&lt;Macro RestrictedAccessPolicy $ipnumbers&gt;
    Require ip $ipnumbers
&lt;/Macro&gt;</pre>


</div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="directive-section"><h2><a name="UndefMacro" id="UndefMacro">UndefMacro</a> <a name="undefmacro" id="undefmacro">Directive</a></h2>
<table class="directive">
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Description">Description:</a></th><td>Undefine a macro</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Syntax">Syntax:</a></th><td><code>UndefMacro <var>name</var></code></td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Context">Context:</a></th><td>server config, virtual host, directory</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Status">Status:</a></th><td>Base</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Module">Module:</a></th><td>mod_macro</td></tr>
</table>
    <p>The <code class="directive">UndefMacro</code> directive undefines a macro
    which has been defined before hand.</p>

    <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">UndefMacro LocalAccessPolicy
UndefMacro RestrictedAccessPolicy</pre>


</div>
<div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img alt="top" src="../images/up.gif" /></a></div>
<div class="directive-section"><h2><a name="Use" id="Use">Use</a> <a name="use" id="use">Directive</a></h2>
<table class="directive">
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Description">Description:</a></th><td>Use a macro</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Syntax">Syntax:</a></th><td><code>Use <var>name</var> [<var>value1</var> ... <var>valueN</var>]
</code></td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Context">Context:</a></th><td>server config, virtual host, directory</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Status">Status:</a></th><td>Base</td></tr>
<tr><th><a href="directive-dict.html#Module">Module:</a></th><td>mod_macro</td></tr>
</table>
    <p>The <code class="directive">Use</code> directive controls the use of a macro.
    The specified macro is expanded. It must be given the same number of
    arguments as in the  macro definition. The provided values are
    associated to their corresponding initial parameters and are substituted
    before processing.</p>

    <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Use LocalAccessPolicy
...
Use RestrictedAccessPolicy "192.54.172.0/24 192.54.148.0/24"</pre>


    <p>is equivalent, with the macros defined above, to:</p>

    <pre class="prettyprint lang-config">Require ip 10.2.16.0/24
...
Require ip 192.54.172.0/24 192.54.148.0/24</pre>


</div>
</div>
<div class="bottomlang">
<p><span>Available Languages: </span><a href="../en/mod/mod_macro.html" title="English">&nbsp;en&nbsp;</a> |
<a href="../fr/mod/mod_macro.html" hreflang="fr" rel="alternate" title="Franais">&nbsp;fr&nbsp;</a></p>
</div><div class="top"><a href="#page-header"><img src="../images/up.gif" alt="top" /></a></div><div class="section"><h2><a id="comments_section" name="comments_section">Comments</a></h2><div class="warning"><strong>Notice:</strong><br />This is not a Q&amp;A section. Comments placed here should be pointed towards suggestions on improving the documentation or server, and may be removed again by our moderators if they are either implemented or considered invalid/off-topic. Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on Freenode, or sent to our <a href="http://httpd.apache.org/lists.html">mailing lists</a>.</div>
<script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
var comments_shortname = 'httpd';
var comments_identifier = 'http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/mod_macro.html';
(function(w, d) {
    if (w.location.hostname.toLowerCase() == "httpd.apache.org") {
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread"><\/div>');
        var s = d.createElement('script');
        s.type = 'text/javascript';
        s.async = true;
        s.src = 'https://comments.apache.org/show_comments.lua?site=' + comments_shortname + '&page=' + comments_identifier;
        (d.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || d.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(s);
    }
    else { 
        d.write('<div id="comments_thread">Comments are disabled for this page at the moment.<\/div>');
    }
})(window, document);
//--><!]]></script></div><div id="footer">
<p class="apache">Copyright 2017 The Apache Software Foundation.<br />Licensed under the <a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0">Apache License, Version 2.0</a>.</p>
<p class="menu"><a href="../mod/">Modules</a> | <a href="../mod/directives.html">Directives</a> | <a href="http://wiki.apache.org/httpd/FAQ">FAQ</a> | <a href="../glossary.html">Glossary</a> | <a href="../sitemap.html">Sitemap</a></p></div><script type="text/javascript"><!--//--><![CDATA[//><!--
if (typeof(prettyPrint) !== 'undefined') {
    prettyPrint();
}
//--><!]]></script>
</body></html>