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The present document is a technical specification of SAREF4ENER, an extension of SAREF [[2]](#[2]) that was created in collaboration with Energy@Home ([http://www.energy-home.it](http://www.energy-home.it)) and EEBus ([http://www.eebus.org/en](http://www.eebus.org/en)), the major Italy- and Germany-based industry associations, to enable the interconnection of their (different) data models.
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The editors would like to thank the ETSI SmartM2M technical committee for providing guidance and expertise.
Also, many thanks to the ETSI staff and all other current and former active Participants of the ETSI SmartM2M group for their support, technical input and suggestions that led to improvements to this ontology.
Also, special thanks goes to the ETSI SmartM2M Technical Officer Guillemin Patrick for his help.
- [Laura Daniele](https://www.linkedin.com/in/lauradaniele) ([TNO](https://tno.nl/))
<h3>General Overview</h3>
<p>An overview of the SAREF4ENER ontology is provided in <a href="#Figure_1">Figure 1</a>, where rectangles containing an orange circle are used to denote classes created in SAREF4ENER, while rectangles containing a faded orange circle denote classes reused from other ontologies, such as SAREF. For all the entities described in the present document, it is indicated whether they are defined in the SAREF4ENER extension or elsewhere by the prefix included before their identifier, i.e. if the element is defined in SAREF4ENER the prefix is s4ener:, while if the element is reused from another ontology it is indicated in the <a href="#namespacedeclarations">Namespace Declarations</a> section.</p>
<p>Arrows with white triangles on top represent the <a href="https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/#ch_subclassof">rdfs:subClassOf</a> relation between two classes. The origin of the arrow is the class to be declared as subclass of the class at the destination of the arrow. </p>
<p>Directed arrows are used to represent properties between classes. </p>
<p>Rectangles that contain a list of values between square brackets denote an enumeration of individuals. </p>
<p>Note that <a href="#Figure_1">Figure 1</a> aims at showing a global overview of the main classes of SAREF4ENER and their mutual relations. More details on the different parts of <a href="#Figure_1">Figure 1</a> are provided below.</p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/Overview.png"><img src="diagrams/Overview.png" alt="SAREF Overview"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_1">Figure 1: SAREF4ENER overview</figcaption>
</figure>
<p><a href="#Figure_2">Figure 2</a> shows the hierarchy of classes and properties defined in SAREF4ENER. </p>
<p>Orange circles represent classes of SAREF4ENER, while faded orange circles represent classes that are reused from other ontologies. Object properties - which are properties between two classes - are denoted by blue rectangles, while datatype properties - which are properties between a class and a data type, such as <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#string">xsd:string</a> or <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-2/#dateTime">xsd:dateTime</a> - are denoted by green rectangles. Faded blue and green rectangles denote object properties and datatype properties that are reused from other ontologies. </p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/Hierarchy.png"><img src="diagrams/Hierarchy.png" alt="SAREF4ENER class and property hierarchy"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_2">Figure 2: SAREF4ENER class and property hierarchy</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Device</h3>
<p>A <a href="#s4ener:Device">s4ener:Device</a> is a subclass of a <a href="https://saref.etsi.org/core/Device">saref:Device</a>, i.e. it inherits the properties of the more general <a href="https://saref.etsi.org/core/Device">saref:Device</a> and extends it with additional properties that are specific for SAREF4ENER. The <a href="#s4ener:Device">s4ener:Device</a> class is shown in <a href="#Figure_3">Figure 3</a>.</p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/Device.png"><img src="diagrams/Device.png" alt="Device class"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_3">Figure 3: Device class</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Power Profile and Alternatives Group</h3>
<p>This clause presents the classes of interest for smart energy management. These classes are used to schedule devices in certain modes and preferred times using power profiles to optimize energy efficiency and accommodate the customer's preferences (i.e. use case 2). These classes are <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a>, <a href="#s4ener:Alternative">s4ener:Alternative</a>, <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> and <a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a>, which are shown in <a href="#Figure_4">Figure 4</a>. </p>
<p>A <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a> is a subclass of a <a href="https://saref.etsi.org/core/Profile">saref:Profile</a>, i.e. it inherits the properties of the more general <a href="https://saref.etsi.org/core/Profile">saref:Profile</a> extending it with additional properties that are specific for SAREF4ENER. The <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a> is used by a <a href="#s4ener:Device">s4ener:Device</a> to expose the power sequences that are potentially relevant for the CEM. A <a href="#s4ener:Device">s4ener:Device</a> can expose a <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a>, which consists of one or more alternative plans (<a href="#s4ener:AlternativesGroup">s4ener:AlternativesGroup</a> class). A <a href="#s4ener:AlternativesGroup">s4ener:AlternativesGroup</a> consists of one or more power sequences (<a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> class), and a <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> consists of one or more slots (<a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a> class). Inversely, a <a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a> belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a>, which, in turn, belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:AlternativesGroup">s4ener:AlternativesGroup</a>, which, in turn, belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a>. A <a href="#s4ener:PowerProfile">s4ener:PowerProfile</a> belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:Device">s4ener:Device</a>. </p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/PowerProfile.png"><img src="diagrams/PowerProfile.png" alt="Power Profile and Alternatives Group"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_4">Figure 4: Power Profile and Alternatives Group</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Power Sequence</h3>
<p>The <a href="#s4ener:AlternativesGroup">s4ener:AlternativesGroup</a> consists of one or more power sequences (<a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> class) and, inversely, a <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:AlternativesGroup">s4ener:AlternativesGroup</a>. <a href="#Figure_5">Figure 5</a> shows the details of the <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> class. </p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/PowerSequence.png"><img src="diagrams/PowerSequence.png" alt="Power Sequence"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_5">Figure 5: Power Sequence</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Slot</h3>
<p>The <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a> consists of one or more slots (<a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a> class) and, inversely, a <a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a> belongs to only and exactly one <a href="#s4ener:PowerSequence">s4ener:PowerSequence</a>. <a href="#Figure_6">Figure 6</a> shows the details of the <a href="#s4ener:Slot">s4ener:Slot</a> class. </p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/Slot.png"><img src="diagrams/Slot.png" alt="Slot"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_6">Figure 6: Slot</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Load control</h3>
<p>This clause presents the part of SAREF4ENER that defines how to model events used in, for example, a direct load management and power curtailing scenarios (i.e. use case 4). The classes of interest are <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlEventData">s4ener:LoadControlEventData</a>, <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlEventAction">s4ener:LoadControlEventAction</a>, <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlStateData">s4ener:LoadControlStateData</a> and <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlState">s4ener:LoadControlState</a>, as shown in <a href="#Figure_7">Figure 7</a>. </p>
<p>The s4ener: LoadControlEventData class is used to represent overload warning severity level and related load control commands to a device. It is characterized by an event ID and a timestamp that represents the time the event information instance was created or received, and the time period that denotes the period of validity of the event. For example, 5 minutes ago an event was received which says that it shall take effect tomorrow from 14:00 to 15:30. In this event the timestamp is "5 minutes ago" and time period is "tomorrow from 14:00 to 15:30".</p>
<p>The <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlEventAction">s4ener:LoadControlEventAction</a> class expresses the type of actions to be performed as a consequence of a load control event. A <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlEventAction">s4ener:LoadControlEventAction</a> can be of type "consume" or "produce" to denote consumption or production of energy or power. Values for both consume and produce actions can be <a href="#s4ener:emergency">s4ener:emergency</a>, <a href="#s4ener:increase">s4ener:increase</a>, <a href="#s4ener:normal">s4ener:normal</a>, <a href="#s4ener:pause">s4ener:pause</a>, <a href="#s4ener:reduce">s4ener:reduce</a>, <a href="#s4ener:resume">s4ener:resume</a>. </p>
<p>The s4ener: LoadControlStateData class expresses the data about the state of an event and is characterized by the same event ID used in the <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlEventData">s4ener:LoadControlEventData</a> class, as well as a timestamp, and it is associated to the class <a href="#s4ener:LoadControlState">s4ener:LoadControlState</a>, which can be of type "consume" or "produce" - analogously to a load control event action – and expresses the possible states of a load control event. Values for both consume and produce load control states can be <a href="#s4ener:eventAccepted">s4ener:eventAccepted</a>, <a href="#s4ener:eventStarted">s4ener:eventStarted</a>, <a href="#s4ener:eventStopped">s4ener:eventStopped</a>, <a href="#s4ener:eventRejected">s4ener:eventRejected</a>, <a href="#s4ener:eventCancelled">s4ener:eventCancelled</a>, or <a href="#s4ener:eventError">s4ener:eventError</a>.</p>
<figure>
<a href="diagrams/LoadControl.png"><img src="diagrams/LoadControl.png" alt="Load control"/></a>
<figcaption id="Figure_7">Figure 7: Load control</figcaption>
</figure>
<h3>Normative references</h3>
<ul>
<li id="[1]">[1] EEBus SPINE.
<br/>NOTE: Available at <a href="https://www.eebus.org/en/specifications/">https://www.eebus.org/en/specifications/</a> .</li>
<li id="[2]">[2] ETSI TS 103 264 (V3.1.1): "SmartM2M; Smart Applications; Reference Ontology and oneM2M Mapping".</li>
</ul>
<h3>Informative references</h3>
<ul>
<li id="[i.1]">[i.1] TNO, EEBus, Energy@Home: "SAREF4EE".
<br/>NOTE: Available at <a href="https://w3id.org/saref4ee">https://w3id.org/saref4ee</a>.</li>
<li id="[i.2]">[i.2] Energy@home Data Model, v2.1, October 2015.
<br/>NOTE: Available at <a href="http://www.energy-home.it/Documents/Technical%20Specifications/E@h_data_model_v2.1.pdf">http://www.energy-home.it/Documents/Technical%20Specifications/E@h_data_model_v2.1.pdf</a>.</li>
<li id="[i.3]">[i.3] IEC TR 62746-2:2015: "Systems interface between customer energy management system and the power management system - Part 2: Use cases and requirements".
<br/>NOTE: Available at <a href="https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/22279">https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/22279</a>.</li>
<li id="[i.4]">[i.4] ETSI TR 103 411: "SmartM2M Smart Appliances SAREF extension investigation".</li>
</ul>
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